Will Back-Button Focusing Make Me a Better Photographer?

All right, DSLR owners. I’ve had so many people ask me this summer about back-button focus and how and why to use it that I thought it would make a good post. Since this is (as usual) a long post, let me just summarize by saying if you don’t understand “focus-and-recompose,” focusing modes, focus selection points, critical focus, the focal plane, depth of field, and how to control all of these things, you probably should worry about those before you worry about using the back button to find focus. Back-button focusing is a great tool to achieve better control over autofocusing, but if you don’t understand how to control focus and what settings and techniques allow you to do that with autofocus now, it’s really not going to make a big difference for you.

That said, here goes my explanation of what back-button focusing is, why I use it, and some pointers on how to enable it on your camera if you want to give it a whirl.

First, what the heck are people talking about?

Back button focus means using a button on the back of your camera body to autofocus instead of autofocusing when you half-press/press the shutter button.

Why would you want to do that?

By separating autofocus from the button that also releases the shutter, you gain complete control over when your camera is focusing and when it isn’t, you can stop switching between autofocus modes and leave your camera in continuous focusing mode, and you make it easier to avoid releasing the shutter when you don’t mean to.

Why wouldn’t you want to do that?

Well, personally, I think back-button focusing is the bomb and I’ve been using it for so many years that it’s the first setting I adjust when I buy a new camera body because I can’t handle focusing via the shutter button.

That said, I have one big caution for you when it comes to switching to back-button focusing: choose when to make the switch cautiously. Your brain is programed to believe that the shutter button autofocuses right now. If you switch to back button, you will need to practice daily for about 2 weeks (depending on the neuroplasticity of your particular brain) to retrain yourself to go for the back button to find focus before you press the shutter. You would not want to make the switch and then go on the once-in-a-lifetime trip and/or to a once-in-a-lifetime event without having taught yourself this new habit before you get there–you will forget to focus and make a bunch of blurry photos at first.

Also, because of this need to create an unconscious habit, you don’t want to switch back and forth between using the back button technique vs the shutter button–you will get yourself very confused.

I Don’t Get It–Why is Back-Button Better?

In spite of all the hype about back-button focusing, a lot of students don’t get it at first. They look at me puzzled and try to understand why they would care which button causes the camera to focus.

So, let me tell you a little story about why I was so enthused when I learned about back-button focusing.

Back when DSLR screens weren’t so big or bright, I was doing a lot of landscape photography on a tripod. I found manual focus to be extremely difficult because the viewfinder focusing screen was terrible and I hadn’t yet invested in a loupe for my LCD screen, so I couldn’t see if I was in focus in daylight. So, I would put my camera on the tripod, compose my image, and then decide where I should focus based on DOF and hyperfocal distance. Then, I would begin the struggle of turning the camera to point at the place where I wanted to focus, hold the shutter button halfway, and then try to recompose the image back to what I wanted without releasing the shutter. I invariably either took the shot while still adjusting or lifted my finger and my focus unlocked. When you lose focus lock and then press the shutter button again, the camera re-focuses on whatever it picks to focus on instead of where you want to focus.

I then discovered there is a little focus lock button on Canon’s that if you press it, focus will remained locked “for a few seconds” giving you an unspecified amount of time to reset and shoot before it turns off. This little button just stressed me out because I was racing against a clock and I didn’t know how much time I actually had before the focus would unlock.

Then, I learned about back button focus. And, ahhhh, breathed a sigh of relief. I could still autofocus, but once I found focus with the back button, I was free to move the camera with both hands for as long as I wanted until I was ready and could get the shot I wanted. And so my love of back-button focusing was born.

If you’re not using autofocus on a tripod a lot (Manual focus avoids this problem), you will not have the same appreciation for this struggle. That doesn’t mean back-button focusing doesn’t still have many advantages.

By the way, even though I now have the tools to manually focus on a tripod, my lenses allow full time manual focus, meaning I can manually focus even when the lens is set to AF. By using back-button focus, I can leave my lenses on AF at all times and I don’t have to worry about undoing my manual focus when I press the shutter button.

I’m Not Autofocusing on a Tripod–Why Would I Care?

A big reason it can be hard to grasp why back-button focusing is so powerful is if you haven’t spent much time working on gaining control over focus in general. If you’re going around autofocusing with all your selection points turned on in single focus/one-shot focus mode (or if this sounds like gibberish to you), you actually have no idea where you are focusing. If you have no idea where you are focusing, back-button focusing probably isn’t the first step you need to take to get control of focus.

Personally, I have 3 bodies that have 61 focus selection points. Those 61 focus selection points are handy when I’m trying to get a shot of, say, a Cliff Swallow in flight. It’s a tiny bird that swoops and dives erratically and I cannot pan with it well enough to keep it in focus using my normal technique. As such, those 61 focus points become very handy when the bird is against a sky or other background that doesn’t fool my camera into focusing on the background (and I’m in continuous focusing mode and I have tracking set properly for such a subject).

The rest of the time, I use either 1 or 9 focus selection points. If I’m shooting landscape, portraits, etc, I use 1 focus selection point. If I am shooting moving subjects like birds that aren’t as erratic or small as swallows but are likely to fly, I turn on focus point expansion that allows me to find focus using the center point, but will activate the surrounding 8 points if the subject moves to help keep the subject in focus.

Now, this is about when students ask, “But I want more than one thing in focus. How am I supposed to get multiple people in focus if I only find focus in one place?” Well, I have news for you: critical focus only occurs at one distance from the camera. If 4 focus points light up when you press the button, it’s because the camera thinks all four of those things are the same distance away. If you want multiple people in focus, you need to understand DOF. This is the diagram I use to explain the relationship between where you find focus and how DOF keeps more than that distance sharp to students:

DOF and Focal Plane Diagram.001

So, first understand how focus works and how DOF helps you get what you want sharp, then worry about whether you should be using the back button to find focus or not.

Once you are very clear on what the focal plane is (which is technically where your camera sensor is positioned in your camera body, but is also often used to mean the plane of critical focus in the scene/subject you are shooting) and how to control DOF, you will realize the advantage of using one focus selection point whenever possible: it let’s you decide what should be sharpest in your image instead of your camera.

All of the Images in this Gallery Used the Focus-and-Recompose Technique (All of my Images are Made Using Back-Button Focusing)

Once you make the switch to using only one focus selection point, you then will want to make a lot of use of “focus-and-recompose,” which is what I was doing in the tripod example. However, focus-and-recompose is a fundamental technique  whether you’re on a tripod or hand-holding. It allows you to get both the focus you want and the composition you want without being dependent on a focus selection point being in the right place (if you are in one shot/single focusing mode). It means that, for example, you can use the center focus selection point (which always has the greatest ability to focus the most precisely in all cameras) to autofocus on a subject’s eyes and then lock focus and recompose so that your subject is artistically framed in your image. It gives you the ability to control critical focus without losing control over composition. The key is to ensure that when you recompose, you don’t change your distance from the subject as this will cause focus to shift forward or backward based on your movement.

The other key is that if you recompose, you must hold the focus. And this is where back-button focus becomes a life saver. If you have to half-press the shutter and hold it while you shift, you may either accidentally press the shutter all the way or let go of the shutter all together. Then you have to start over. With the back button, you can simply press the back button to find focus, release, and then concentrate on recomposing. When you press the shutter, because you have turned off focusing on the shutter button, your focus does not change and, as long as you also haven’t changed the distance from you to the subject, their eyes will be the sharpest thing in the image even though the focus selection point is no where near their eyes when you eventually do press the shutter button.

There are also advantages to using back button focusing when you are continuously focusing (AF-C on Nikon, AI Servo on Canon). As you track a subject in motion, you hold the back button and it keeps focusing, giving you more control on when you focus vs fire (it can be challenging to pan while holding the shutter button half way without firing). If the subject stops, you can release the back button, locking focus as if you were in one-shot/single mode and fire away. Essentially, you gain total control over when the camera is autofocusing and when it is not. It’s a beautiful thing once it clicks in your head how much easier it is to control focus this way.

This also means you never have to switch between one-shot/single focusing mode and continuous focusing mode–if you’re not pressing the back button, your focus is locked regardless of which focusing mode you’re in. By comparison, when you use the half-press of the shutter to focus, if you’re in continuous focusing, it keeps refocusing until the shutter releases, meaning it’s not possible to focus-and-recompose.

To summarize, back-button focusing is an advantage in all situations. There are fewer settings you have to use to control focus when you back-button focus and you gain greater control with less coordination. I honestly cannot think of any reason not to switch to back-button focusing other than ensuring you have the time to develop the habit before you make the switch.

You Convinced Me–Now What?

Remember, if you make the switch, you will forget to focus at first. Do not, say, decide you are going to make the switch because you are shooting a wedding tomorrow and you want to give it a try. Make the switch and really pay attention to whether you are finding focus when and where you want until you find yourself automatically pushing the back button without thinking about it and getting the results you want. Then, you can go shoot a wedding with back-button focus. 🙂

Now, the remaining question is, how do you turn it on/disable the shutter button focus? This requires finding the setting in your manual (which is usually different for each camera) that will allow you to assign functions to your buttons. You will, unfortunately, not find anything called “back-button focusing” in your manual.

In Canons, these settings are in the custom function menus and are pretty obtuse. Once you find a setting for the shutter button in custom controls, set it for “Metering Start” (or another setting that doesn’t include anything with AF in it) which will disable focusing with the shutter button. Find the settings for the AF-On button (the button is in upper right corner of camera back and furthest to the left of those 3 buttons—very convenient to find with your thumb once you get used to it). Make sure the AF-On button is set to “Metering and AF Start.”

In Nikons, it’s even more obtuse, but I don’t look at Nikons every day, so maybe it makes more sense to a Nikon shooter. In any case, you also need to go to the custom setting menu, to controls, and then go to assign AE-L/AF-L button. Choose AF-On from that menu. If the shutter button is also in that menu, check to make sure it isn’t enabled for AF-On as well. I’ve been told that in many Nikons you also need to set the camera so that the camera will still fire if it hasn’t been focused in order to get it to fire when it doesn’t know that you don’t want to refocus. That setting is also in the Custom Setting Menus under Autofocus and you want to set AF-C and AF-S priority selection to “release.”

Now, go practice, practice, practice! 🙂

 

 

Weird Colors and White Balance

During a workshop this past weekend, several folks commented about having trouble with their images looking yellow or having other weird color casts. This is generally solved by changing your White Balance Settings.

What is White Balance? Back before we had miniature super computers in our cameras, film photographers would use different film or filters to prevent photos from getting weird color casts based on the temperature of the light they were shooting in. Being able to adjust white balance in your camera is one of the great advantages of digital photography.

However, if you think about your camera as a computer, it has to be programmed to mathematically recognize white, which sometimes it does quite well. White balance basically tells the camera “this is white” and it then shifts all colors based on what it believes is white.

So, why is white not always white? Light has a temperature. That temperature causes us to see the light as more blue or more yellow and it can dramatically impact how all colors look.

For example,we once lived in a house where we’d painted every other wall  a nice, neutral gray. One of those walls was in the kitchen, which was open to the great room where two more of the gray walls were located. If we had florescent lighting turned on in the kitchen only, the gray wall in the kitchen looked robin-egg blue while, in golden morning light, the gray walls in the great room turned a soft lavender. The difference was so striking that we once had a guest ask us why we had painted the walls different colors.

The walls were painted the exact same color from the exact same paint can. The difference in color that we see is caused by the difference in the color of the light striking the walls.

This means that in the great room, I needed a different white balance setting from the kitchen to make white look white.

Auto White Balance usually works great in my camera. It has worked great for me most of the time in 5 different models of digital cameras now, even going back to the early 2000’s. As the algorithms in the camera’s computer have improved with each camera upgrade, the percent has probably gone from 75% of the time to 90% for casual shooting.

But then there are the times when it doesn’t work so well.

Auto White balance often fails when:

  • The temperature of the light is outside the range of temperatures your camera’s Auto White Balance is programed to deal with.
  • There are multiple sources of light with different temperatures lighting your subject (e.g., daylight coming through a window plus incandescent bulbs plus florescent bulbs all in the same room. Or, if you’re using flash indoors, most flash units are the temperature of daylight, so that will also create the same kind of mix as in the first example.)
  • Your subject contains a lot of one color or a limited range of colors, which can fool your auto white balance into thinking the light is cooler or warmer than it is, depending on the dominant color(s) in your subject.
  • You are shooting in the golden hour around sunrise or sunset. This is not so much a failure of auto white balance as an over application. Auto white balance will often eliminate the golden cast to the light, removing the warm glow that we usually find quite pleasing.
  • You need the white balance to be absolutely accurate so that colors are represented truly (e.g., a product photo).

So, let’s say you’re shooting away and all your images look really yellow. What to do?

Before we go through the white balance adjustment options, let’s start by saying if you have set your camera to save your images in the RAW format, one option is not to worry about white balance and to set it in post-processing on the computer later. The down side to this is that your white balance accuracy will be dependent on your eye, your memory, and your monitor. If you really need exact colors, this is not the best way to achieve white balance (e.g., product photography, art reproduction, etc). If you just need it to look good, this works very well and can save you some headaches.

That said, even if you are using the RAW format, you may prefer to have good white balance in camera as well. It can make it easier to judge your images when you are not distracted by strange color casts. So here are some options:

First, check to see what White Balance Setting you’re currently on. If you’re on Auto, try picking another pre-programmed setting that best matches your situation. Indoors this gets trickier all the time because we now have all kinds of bulbs that come in all kinds of temperatures. So if your light looks warm to you, try setting the white balance to tungsten (incandescent bulbs). If the light looks cool, try florescent.

Second, you can try setting the temperature of your white balance using the “K” option for Kelvin temperature. Daylight during mid-day is around 5000-5500K. If you change the K value to something higher, your image will look warmer (more yellow). If you change the K value to something lower, your image will look cooler (bluer). You can experiment with this to see if there is a value that works particularly well for your situation, but I find the next method to work better.

Third, if you don’t need the colors to be absolutely correct but you’d like to be able to get your white balance pretty darn close in-camera without having to depend on your eye/monitor later, use a white balance target and take a picture of it in the same lighting conditions you’re going to shoot in. You can purchase a very exact neutral target for this purpose, you can use a white sheet of paper, or you can simply look for something in the same light that is neutral (white works very well for me). The target will be more accurate, but under most circumstances, anything white is good enough. The target must occupy a good portion of the frame for this to work, so zoom in.

Follow your camera’s instructions to set the photo of your target as your custom (Canon) or preset (Nikon) white balance. This will tell your camera “this is white in these lighting conditions” and your camera will measure what white is from that image and then adjust the white balance accordingly. This is a 3 step process:

  1. take a shot of something white/neutral
  2. tell your camera “use this image to determine what’s white,”
  3. set your white balance setting to use the “custom” (Canon) or “PRE” (Nikon) white balance.

This is a really important thing to do if your other white balance settings aren’t working well and you’re saving your images as JPEGs. It’s more difficult and sometimes impossible to fix white balance in JPEG images later.

Fourth, if you are shooting in circumstances where the color must be absolutely correct (i.e., mathematically correct vs to your eye) such as product photography, use a tool like the X-Rite ColorChecker Passport to set your white balance in camera and to also calibrate individual colors during post processing. This is a combination of exactly calibrated targets and software used in post-processing to ensure your white balance and colors are correct. Most people do not need this tool. However, if you do any product photography or art reproduction work, as I do, it is a huge time/headache saver.

But what if you’re white balance is making white too white? This used to be a problem in older camera models. I would get up at the crack of dawn or time my shoot around sunset to get that beautiful golden glow in the light and then my white balance would take it away! My 5D Mark III seems to leave my images nice and warm in Auto White Balance. But, if your camera is off-setting the light more than you want it to, try setting your white balance to florescent. Or, set a Kelvin temperature for the white balance that gives you the nice warm glow you’re looking for.

Finally, a word about flash. When you are using flash indoors, you can help prevent white balance confusion by using gels on your flash to match the temperature of your flash to the indoor light. If we revisit my first example:

Even though I was able to get the skin tones back to natural looking, the rest of the scene still looks a bit warmer than it did in real life. If I had gelled my flash to make the light temperature of the flash match the light temperature in the room, all of the colors could have been white balanced to look right. As it is, because some areas are more lit by the lighting in the building while others are more lit by my flash, it’s harder to achieve good white balance consistently throughout the image. Of course, there are many other problems with this image, so imperfect color temperature is the least of my concerns! 🙂

If your only flash is your pop-up flash built into your camera, here is a do-it-yourself project to create gels for a pop-up flash, but you can also buy gels. Here is a set available for pop-up at Adorama.

For speedlites/speedlights and other strobes, there are lots of options out there for gels.

There are a lot of great resources out there on how to gel your flashes. Since this post is already too long, here’s an article by the Strobist, who has many, many great articles on using speedlites.

Lesson 95: A Change of Perspective

 

How many times have you seen or taken a picture of a dog that looks a lot like this?  (You could probably replace the word “dog” with “child” here as well.)

02 Tisen grateful for Jack

Now, I don’t mean that all dogs (or children) look alike.  Rather, I mean that our default way of looking at a dog is from a standing position looking down at them.  Most dog photos dog owners snap are taken very quickly, spur of the moment without time to think or plan how we want to shoot.

This is usually because each of our dogs is the cutest, most brilliant canine kid in the world and we want to capture that hilarious thing he or she is doing that makes him or her that much cuter.

However, sometimes changing the perspective just a little can make a big difference  For example, compare these two photos:

In the first one, we have a funny expression that still cracks me up every time I look at it, but notice that the camera is above the dog’s head shooting down and the angle of his head to the camera makes it look considerably skinnier than it does in the photo on the right.  The one on the right was taken about level with the dog’s face, straight on to the nose.  If these were the only two pictures you’d ever seen of my dog, would you still feel certain these were both of the same dog?

Let’s compare a couple more:

Notice how in the image on the left, we have a cute snapshot of a dog rolling in the grass.  The camera is held almost parallel to the dog, leaving us no sense of the height of his body relative to the ground (except perhaps because of the stray foot that snuck into the shot).  But look at the leash that starts at the lower left corner and creates a line down to the dog.  It looks like it could be 10 feet long!  (It’s only 4 ft.)

Now look at the length of my dog’s front legs.  The are folded and parallel to the camera.  Compare that to the front leg in the photo on the right.  Notice how the leg now forms a similar angle to the lens that draws the eye back to the dog.  But this time, it’s his leg that looks exceptionally long.

Next, let’s look at wide angle perspectives that create a sense of size.

In the photo on the left, you could argue that the dog (and man) look really small, or, if you imagine the dog and man to be average sized, you might see this more as the waterfall looking really big.  On the right, we have an example shot tighter, but again, it’s wide, the camera is further back, and it’s shot from a standing position angled downward.  This creates the impression that the bench, man, and dog are all a little shorter than they really are.

Finally, here’s a perspective that creates a little bit of an optical illusion:

Both images were shot from the floor looking up at my dog hanging over the edge of a sofa.  In the photo on the left, the back legs are not visually connected to the front end of the dog.  They visually look like either there is a second dog in the photo or the visible dog was cut in half with his back legs moved to the side.  I can assure you that no animals were harmed in any way in the making of this post.

In the photo on the right, I got up tight to my dog’s back paws and created more of a silhouette effect.  By changing the perspective so that I am both closer and looking up, the paws look huge!  Notice that the one on the right looks significantly bigger than the one on the left.  This is because it was closer to the camera and it’s turned at a slightly different angle that makes the full breadth of the pad visible, but angled to the camera.

Your Assignment:  Experiment with the visual effects you can create by changing where you’re angle to the subject.  Move up, move down, move all around.  Try shooting from above and shooting from down low.  Try head on, too.  None of these angels are right or wrong; they just create a different perspective that affects the way the eye perceives the shape of the subject.  Bonus Tip:  want to look taller and thinner?  Have the iPhotographer get down low and shoot at an upward angle.

Lesson 94: Choices, Choices

Let’s say you happen to be walking along a scenic riverfront at sunset.  There are interesting architectural features on the South side of the river and the sun, not having recently changed it’s course, is setting off to the West.  There are just enough clouds along the horizon to make for a decent sunset, but the sky above the horizon is clear, without much interesting going on.

You think, “Oh, what a nice sunset reflecting on the river,” and you pull out your iPhone.  But you quickly discover that taking a picture of the sunset doesn’t include the interesting buildings and taking a picture of the buildings misses the best part of the sunset.  To boot, the buildings are too dark.  What do you do?

Well, this is the joy of photography:  sometimes you have to choose.  You can’t always get what you want . . . so what do you need?

And that is the other joy of photography–you get to decide.

I’ve shared 6 of the images I took in the gallery above, each with the scene framed differently.  Below, I’ve taken these 6 images and pointed out the things that bug me about them.  There are many.  However, I think it’s useful to learn what other people look at and what bugs them in photographs when you’re trying to figure out what makes one photograph more appealing than another.  Remember, there are no rules, but part of photography is learning to see things differently.  Sometimes that includes your own photos.

 

Your Assignment:  Take a look at the comments I’ve made on my photos below.  I’ve color-coded them for things I think are positives (green), things that are less-than-ideal but tolerable (yellow), and things that are a deal-breaker for me (red).

20131219 Choices Choices.001

20131219 Choices Choices.002

Do you agree with my assessment?  Do you see other things that bother you (there are many more things that bother me than I included in the comments)?  Do you like things I don’t?  Did you notice the things I pointed out before you read my comments?

Why do you think two people look at the same photo and see it differently?

Lesson 93: Old Places, New Dressing

Now that winter is upon us (well, some of us more than others) in the northern hemisphere, even the tired old subjects we see everyday take on a whole new look.  One of the fascinating things about photography is that everyday is a new day.  Every minute is changing light.  You can always find a new way to see the same thing you looked at last season, last night, the last minute.  This change is particularly dramatic as the seasons change.

So, in today’s lesson, I invite you to revisit a common, convenient location like your own yard.  Put on an extra layer or two if it’s especially cold in your neck of the woods, but by all means, get outside.  Even if you don’t have snow where you live.

Go out early–when the temperatures drop to freezing overnight and you get out before the sun has had a chance to warm things back up, frost can be a spectacular subject.

In fact, even when the frost isn’t that dramatic, like in these images, it still creates a different look by brightening what can otherwise be dull looking plants when there’s no frost.

On the particular morning I pulled out my iPhone to capture some frosty spots in my neighborhood park, the sun was low, shadows were long, and colors were drab.  After taking a few images with the Apple camera app, I decided to use the Hipstamatic app with the D-Type film for the tintype effect.

I like how the frost-covered plants look in the tintype effect–they jump out more with their frosty coating.  The Apple Camera app works, too.

 Your Assignment:  Pick a place that might feel a little tired as a photographic subject.  Your yard might be one such place.  A place you walk regularly might be another.  Make sure your iPhone is fully charged and then head out at sunrise (which isn’t so early these days) to look anew at what you’ve seen a hundred times before.  Look at the shadows and light.  Look for frost bouncing back the rising sun.  Look for new angles and new ways of seeing the same old thing.  Try the Apple Camera app.  Try the Hipstamtic app.  See if you can make something old look brand new.

Lesson 86: My Silly Dog and the iPhoto Exposure Tool

If yesterday’s abstract example hurt your eyes, today’s lesson should at least make you smile.  Well, if you’re a dog lover, anyway.

There is just something fun about the way the Paper Camera app’s Con Tours effect renders my dog.  I think it’s that it outlines his spots and turns his nose into a giant white circle that amuses me so much.  Hopefully you find it amusing, too.

In any case, just as in yesterday’s lesson, I started with a Paper Camera Con Tours image (see Lesson 77 for instructions on Paper Camera) and opened it in the iOS 7 version of iPhoto to see if I could make it a little more exciting.

The Paper Camera version is fun, but it isn’t quite contrasty enough for me.

Here are the steps I used to make my dog stand out better:

Your Assignment:  Use the iPhoto exposure adjustment on one of your photos that maybe looks a little dull or hazy.  Notice that the slider is split into 5 parts.  You can slide the black square at the far left to the right to brighten the whole image.  You can slide the white square right to turn down the brightness.  You can move the 3 markers in the middle to adjust the mid-tones.

This works better in a color image where there is more diversity in the range of tones than in my black and white example.  It’s worth experimenting with this because it makes a big difference in the appearance of your photo.  It also can turn into something pretty awful if you go too far with it–have a little fun!  🙂

Lesson 85: iPhoto Con Tours

Back in Lesson 77, we downloaded Paper Camera and did a bunch of fun stuff with it over several lessons.  Today we’re going to take a Paper Camera image using the Con Tours option and then do some editing with it in iPhoto to see what we can do.

Since I was out hiking with my dog, I took one photo of him and one photo of some trees using Paper Camera Con Tours.  Refer to Lesson 77 for instructions on how to take a photo with Paper Camera and to see an example of Con Tours.

After I saved my two photos to my Camera Roll from within Paper Camera, I opened up iPhoto and did some editing.

Here are the steps I used for the image of the trees (we’ll take a look at my dog in tomorrow’s lesson):

Your Assignment:  Try combining apps like Paper Camera and iPhoto and see what you can do.